These separators use pressure differentials to cool the wet natural gas and separate the oil and condensate. PETROGAS has been a recognized leader since 1975 in the design, manufacturing, and operation of gas … Our industry-leading team of experts include process design, application and modular engineering, project management, data analysis and operations experience. This process is known simply as the ‘amine process’, or alternatively as the Girdler process, and is used in 95 percent of U.S. gas sweetening operations. The removal of natural gas liquids usually takes place in a relatively centralized processing plant, and uses techniques similar to those used to dehydrate natural gas. Natural gas processing consists of separating first, all impurities found including acid gases, water vapor, and inert gases. The process used to recover sulfur is known as the Claus process, and involves using thermal and catalytic reactions to extract the elemental sulfur from the hydrogen sulfide solution. It consists of a simple closed tank, where the force of gravity serves to separate the heavier liquids like oil, and the lighter gases, like natural gas. These processes are dictated by the profitability metric referred to … Some natural gas leaks into the atmosphere from oil and natural gas wells, storage tanks, pipelines, and processing plants. In addition to water, oil, and NGL removal, one of the most important parts of gas processing involves the removal of sulfur and carbon dioxide. There are two principle amine solutions used, monoethanolamine (MEA) and diethanolamine (DEA). A new innovation in this process has been the addition of flash tank separator-condensers. For information on the production of sulfur in the United States, visit the USGS here. Since it is such a polluting and harmful substance, further filtering, incineration, and ‘tail gas’ clean up efforts ensure that well over 98 percent of the sulfur is recovered. The scrubbers serve primarily to remove sand and other large-particle impurities. Natural Gas Processing And Dew Point Control. To learn more about the fractionation of NGLs, click here. The Pennsylvania State University © 2020. The only company worldwide with the know-how and experience to design and operate hydrogen and syngas plants based on proprietary technologies. Extraction of the other, heavier NGLs can be close to 100 percent using this process. After removing the acid gases, the natural gas stream is sent to a dehydration unit to remove water typically by absorption in a glycol unit, followed by mercury removal (by adsorption on activated carbons or other sorbents), and nitrogen rejection either cryogenically, or by adsorption, or absorption depending on the nitrogen concentration. To learn about the basics of natural gas, including its composition, click here. LNG and natural gas processing plants Linde Engineering offers natural gas plants for a wide range of applications and capacities, helping to meeting the world rising demand for energy. NGLs include ethane, propane, butane, iso-butane, and natural gasoline. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. Fractionation works based on the different boiling points of the different hydrocarbons in the NGL stream. In most instances, natural gas liquids (NGLs) have a higher value as separate products, and it is thus economical to remove them from the gas stream. Natural gas is processed for sale and consumption. While some of the needed processing can be accomplished at or near the wellhead (field processing), the complete processing of natural gas takes place at a processing plant, usually located in a natural gas producing region. The behavior of natural gas, whether pure methane or a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and the nonhydrocarbons nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, must be understood by the engineer who is designing the operating equipment for its production, processing, and transportation. Like the process for NGL extraction and glycol dehydration, the amine solution used can be regenerated (that is, the absorbed sulfur is removed), allowing it to be reused to treat more sour gas. Major transportation pipelines usually impose restrictions on the make-up of the natural gas that is allowed into the pipeline. In addition, the expansion turbine is able to convert some of the energy released when the natural gas stream is expanded into recompressing the gaseous methane effluent, thus saving energy costs associated with extracting ethane. Riazi, S. Eser, J. L. Peña Díez, and S. S. Agrawal, “Introduction” In Petroleum Refining and Natural Gas Processing, Editors: M. R. Riazi, S. Eser, J. L. Peña, S. S. Agrawal, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2013, p.12. Wet gas enters the separator, being cooled slightly by a heat exchanger. Two or more towers are required due to the fact that after a certain period of use, the desiccant in a particular tower becomes saturated with water. In practice, according to the Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy, these systems have been shown to recover 90 to 99 percent of methane that would otherwise be flared into the atmosphere. Natural Gas Processing. The next logical step is NGL (Natural Gas Liquids) extraction and fractionation. That is, the mixed stream of different NGLs must be separated out. Hydrogen & syngas plants. Natural gas, as it is used by consumers, is much different from the natural gas that is brought from underground up to the wellhead. These plants are located on major pipeline systems. The gas/oil mixture is piped out of the well and into a gas trap, natural gas processing separates the stream into crude oil and "wet" gas, which contains LPG and natural gas. Figure 12.2. When this natural gas and oil is produced, it is possible that it will separate on its own, simply due to decreased pressure; much like opening a can of soda pop allows the release of dissolved carbon dioxide. Raw natural gas comes from three types of wells: oil wells, gas wells, and condensate wells. Natural gas coming directly from a well contains many natural gas liquids that are commonly removed. The main difference is that, in NGL absorption, an absorbing oil is used as opposed to glycol. The name of a particular fractionator gives an idea as to its purpose, as it is conventionally named for the hydrocarbon that is boiled off. Essentially, a flash tank separator consists of a device that reduces the pressure of the glycol solution stream, allowing the methane and other hydrocarbons to vaporize (‘flash’). A generalized natural gas flow diagram is shown in Figure 12.2 [7]. This natural gas, because of the rotten smell provided by its sulfur content, is commonly called ‘sour gas’. The natural gas used by consumers is composed almost entirely of methane. An example of absorption dehydration is known as Glycol Dehydration. Many of the innovations we have developed, like the use of plate-fin exchangers and packings in cryogenic columns, remain today as standard designs in the industry. In addition to processing done at the wellhead and at centralized processing plants, some final processing is also sometimes accomplished at ‘straddle extraction plants’. According to the American Gas Association’s Gas Facts 2000, there was an estimated 36,100 miles of gathering system pipelines in the U.S. in 1999. Natural Gas Processing and Treating. Natural gas from some wells contains significant amounts of sulfur and carbon dioxide. This separation of natural gas from oil is most often done using equipment installed at or near the wellhead. Two basic steps: 1) Extraction, 2) Fractionation. By merging Axens Solutions’ products portfolio with Prosernat gas treatment technologies portfolio, Axens Solutions possesses all the treatment, purification and drying technologies necessary for the production of purified natural gas that meets the specifications for natural gas … The heaters ensure that the temperature of the gas does not drop too low. [7.] Natural gas from gas and condensate wells, in which there is little or no crude oil, is termed ‘nonassociated gas’. Author: Dr. Semih Eser, Professor of Energy and Geo-Environmental Engineering, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, Penn State. Use industry-leading technologies for CO₂ and H₂S removal Acid gas treatment and removal technologies separate sour gases—highly corrosive CO 2 and often deadly H 2 S acid gases—from saleable natural gas streams in a process known as gas sweetening. Solid-desiccant dehydrators are typically more effective than glycol dehydrators, and are usually installed as a type of straddle system along natural gas pipelines. Natural gas is considered the dominant worldwide bridge between fossil fuels of today and future resources of tomorrow. Natural gas processing is a purification method used on raw natural gas after it is extracted from a well. The glycol solution will absorb water from the wet gas. In this case, however, amine solutions are used to remove the hydrogen sulfide. While absorption methods can extract almost all of the heavier NGLs, the lighter hydrocarbons, such as ethane, are often more difficult to recover from the natural gas stream. Sweetening of sour natural gas is the initial purification step which takes care of the removal of acid Natural Gas Processing; We offer reliable solutions across the natural gas value chain through a broad technology portfolio that includes gas conditioning and treating, fractionation, deep ethane extraction and LPG recovery, and liquid product treating. The actual process used to separate oil from natural gas, as well as the equipment that is used, can vary widely. The site editor may also be contacted with questions or comments about this Open Educational Resource. For the Qatar region, natural gas processing is of crucial importance. Although the natural gas that arrives at these straddle extraction plants is already of pipeline quality, in certain instances there still exist small quantities of NGLs, which are extracted at the straddle plants. For more information on sulfur recovery and the Claus process, click here. These NGLs are sold separately and have a variety of different uses; including enhancing oil recovery in oil wells, providing raw materials for oil refineries or petrochemical plants, and as sources of energy. After liquid removal, the dry gas then travels back through the heat exchanger and is warmed by the incoming wet gas. In the past, this methane was simply vented out of the boiler. Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow powder like material, and can often be seen in large piles near gas treatment plants, as is shown. Natural gas processing consists of separating all of the various hydrocarbons and fluids from the pure natural gas, to produce what is known as ‘pipeline quality’ dry natural gas. In these cases, separation of oil and gas is relatively easy, and the two hydrocarbons are sent separate ways for further processing. In the refrigerated oil absorption method, where the lean oil is cooled through refrigeration, propane recovery can be upwards of 90 percent, and around 40 percent of ethane can be extracted from the natural gas stream. Gas Processing Journal is devoted to aspects of production, processing and transmission of natural gas with scientific research certification from MSRT. Natural gas liquids (NGLs) have a higher value as separate products. Processing plants remove valuable natural gas liquids from the treated gas. In natural gas reservoirs even the heavier hydrocarbons occur for the most part in gaseous form because of the higher pressures. The extraction of NGLs from the natural gas stream produces both cleaner, purer natural gas, as well as the valuable hydrocarbons that are the NGLs themselves. 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 This is most often used for wells producing high pressure gas along with light crude oil or condensate. In order to decrease the amount of methane and other compounds that are lost, flash tank separator-condensers work to remove these compounds before the glycol solution reaches the boiler. Natural gas withdrawn from natural gas or crude oil wells is called wet natural gas because, along with methane, it usually contains NGL—ethane, propane, butanes, and pentanes—and water vapor. Natural gas hydrates are crystalline ice-like solids or semi-solids that can impede the passage of natural gas through valves and pipes. In addition, raw natural gas contains water vapor, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide, helium, nitrogen, and other compounds. After natural gas is processed, it's then transported to market via pipelines. An example of this type of equipment is the Low-Temperature Separator (LTX). Wellhead natural gas may also contain nonhydrocarbons such as sulfur, helium, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide, most of which … The natural gas, having been stripped of most of its water content, is then transported out of the dehydrator. Either of these compounds, in liquid form, will absorb sulfur compounds from natural gas as it passes through. In fact, according to the USGS, U.S. sulfur production from gas processing plants accounts for about 15 percent of the total U.S. production of sulfur. Most produced gas must be treated before the consumer can use it, and there were nearly 2,000 gas processing plants operating around the world as of mid-2006. However, if it is economic to extract ethane and other lighter hydrocarbons, cryogenic processes are required for high recovery rates. Gas processing is an instrumental piece of the natural gas value chain. The process used to accomplish this task is called fractionation. A generalized natural gas processing flow diagram [7]. Adsorption occurs when the water vapor is condensed and collected on the surface. For over 40 years, Exterran has had a proven legacy of outstanding plant performance, innovation and accountability for all phases of your project. A comparison of Images 12.2 and 12.3 illustrates the significance of natural gas processing for purification of the raw natural gas to obtain a pipeline quality gas. Click here to learn about the transportation of natural gas. As the natural gas is passed through an absorption tower, it is brought into contact with the absorption oil which soaks up a high proportion of the NGLs. Sulfur can be sold and used if reduced to its elemental form. This basic pressure-temperature relationship can work in reverse as well, to extract gas from a liquid oil stream. The last step in the processing sequence is the Natural Gas Liquids (NGL) extraction, fractionation, and treatment, as described in Figure 12.4. m3/day) of sweet natural gas. The project was completed on a very fast track schedule (kick-off to commissioning took just over 4 months). However, natural gas found at the wellhead, although still composed primarily of methane, is by no means as pure. Natural gas processing plants. While water has a boiling point of 212 degrees Fahrenheit, glycol does not boil until 400 degrees Fahrenheit. Today approximately 30% of the world's energy demand is derived from natural gas. Once removed, the CO 2 and H 2 S are usually vented in low concentrations, flared, and then reinjected or otherwise properly disposed of. By varying the pressure of the gas in various sections of the separator, it is possible to vary the temperature, which causes the oil and some water to be condensed out of the wet gas stream. Condensate and water removal [6]. The extracted NGL, on the other hand, is sent to a fractionation unit that operates like Light Ends Unit in a refinery, as discussed in Lesson 5, separating ethane, propane, butane, and naphtha (>C5, natural gasoline). Please send comments or suggestions on accessibility to the site editor. Most often, however, the gas contains unacceptable levels of higher-weight hydrocarbon liquids as well as impurities, and it is available only at very low pressures. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. Major transportation pipelines usually impose restrictions on the make-up of the natural gas that is allowed into the pipeline. Gas Processing . The process for removing hydrogen sulfide from sour gas is commonly referred to as ‘sweetening’ the gas. Spanning the entire NG processing chain, we have delivered everything from standardized, modular designs to world-scale, stick-built NGL plants. That means that before the natural gas can be transported it must be purified. Following the NGL extraction, the treated natural gas stream that is, now, mostly methane, or a gas compliant with the natural gas specifications is sent to the pipeline for transmission to the point of use. This is a precursor to LPG gas manufacturing process (LPG production process). The absorption method of NGL extraction is very similar to using absorption for dehydration. Second, these natural gas liquids must be separated themselves, down to their base components. Natural gas emits 50 to 60 percent less carbon dioxide (CO2) when combusted in a new, efficient natural gas power plant compared with … Glycol, the principal agent in this process, has a chemical affinity for water. Note that the fractionation unit may also include a butane splitter or deisobutanizer to separate n-butane and iso-butane. Essentially, fractionation occurs in stages consisting of the boiling off of hydrocarbons one by one. This process allows for the recovery of about 90 to 95 percent of the ethane originally in the gas stream. The effluent gas is virtually free of sulfur compounds, and thus loses its sour gas status. In addition to separating oil and some condensate from the wet gas stream, it is necessary to remove most of the associated water. According to the Gas Processors Association, these two processes account for around 90 percent of total natural gas liquids production. In this process, external refrigerants are used to cool the natural gas stream. Natural gas is a fossil fuel, though the global warming emissions from its combustion are much lower than those from coal or oil. Once absorbed, the glycol particles become heavier and sink to the bottom of the contactor where they are removed. This rapid temperature drop condenses ethane and other hydrocarbons in the gas stream, while maintaining methane in gaseous form. Vista completed the detailed engineering design and procurement of a grassroots gas processing facility handling 20 MMSCFD (566 103 Std. This treatment consists of ‘dehydrating’ the natural gas, which usually involves one of two processes: either absorption, or adsorption. In certain instances, it is economic to simply leave the lighter NGLs in the natural gas stream. The rich oil is fed into lean oil stills, where the mixture is heated to a temperature above the boiling point of the NGLs, but below that of the oil. Then, an expansion turbine is used to rapidly expand the chilled gases, which causes the temperature to drop significantly. However, the removal of the water vapor that exists in solution in natural gas requires a more complex treatment. [6. Dropping the temperature of the gas stream to around -120°F by expansion and external refrigeration, Natural Gas Liquid Fractionation - works like Light Ends Unit, Deethanizer - separates ethane from the NGL stream. The gas then travels through a high pressure liquid ‘knockout’, which serves to remove any liquids into a low-temperature separator. Gas wells typically produce raw natural gas by itself, while condensate wells produce free natural gas along with a semi-liquid hydrocarbon condensate. These hydrates are solid or semi-solid compounds, resembling ice like crystals. It is now a mixture of absorption oil, propane, butanes, pentanes, and other heavier hydrocarbons. In this process, a liquid desiccant dehydrator serves to absorb water vapor from the gas stream. This rapid expansion of the gas allows for the lowering of the temperature in the separator. The recovered H2S is sent to a combined Claus-SCOT (Tail Gas Treating) unit to be converted to elemental sulfur, as was also discussed in Lesson 10. Should these hydrates accumulate, they can impede the passage of natural gas through valves and gathering systems. The first step in natural gas processing is to separate the raw natural gas from the water and condensate. The most basic type of separator is known as a conventional separator. The type and extent of natural gas processing depend on the original gas composition and the specifications of the consumer. Abstract. Why natural gas gathering and processing are important for MLPs Real Estate Natural gas processing can occur … Passing this heated gas through a saturated desiccant bed vaporizes the water in the desiccant tower, leaving it dry and allowing for further natural gas dehydration. In addition to losing a portion of the natural gas that was extracted, this venting contributes to air pollution and the greenhouse effect. Once the natural gas has been fully processed, and is ready to be consumed, it must be transported from those areas that produce natural gas, to those areas that require it. Natural gas can also be … Absorption occurs when the water vapor is taken out by a dehydrating agent. In certain instances, however, specialized equipment is necessary to separate oil and natural gas. Although the processing of natural gas is in many respects less complicated than the processing and refining of crude oil, it is equally as necessary before its use by end users. This process allows for the recovery of around 75 percent of butanes, and 85 – 90 percent of pentanes and heavier molecules from the natural gas stream. The extracted natural gas is transported to these processing plants through a network of gathering pipelines, which are small-diameter, low pressure pipes. A generalized natural gas flow diagram is shown in Figure 12.2 [7]. To reduce the occurrence of hydrates, small natural gas-fired heating units are typically installed along the gathering pipe wherever it is likely that hydrates may form. Sour gas can also be extremely corrosive. The gas then flows into this low-temperature separator through a choke mechanism, which expands the gas as it enters the separator. Figure 12.3. In many instances, natural gas is dissolved in oil underground primarily due to the pressure that the formation is under. Although most sour gas sweetening involves the amine absorption process, it is also possible to use solid desiccants like iron sponges to remove the sulfide and carbon dioxide. Thanks to the recent shale boom in North America, natural gas is … - Selection from Natural Gas Processing [Book] In order to process and transport associated dissolved natural gas, it must be separated from the oil in which it is dissolved. In general, natural gas processing includes the following steps: In addition to these processes, it is often necessary to install scrubbers and heaters at or near the wellhead. The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline dry gas quality levels can be quite complex, but usually involves four main processes to remove the various impurities: Scroll down, or click on the links above to be transported to a particular section. ]A. J. Kidnay and W. R. Parrish, Fundamentals of Natural Gas Processing, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2006, p.16. When sour gas (i.e., gas containing H2S) is compressed, the compressor discharge gas is used as a seal gas that is routed to the inlet of the first stage of the compressor. This absorbing oil has an ‘affinity’ for NGLs in much the same manner as glycol has an affinity for water. NGL extraction can be carried out by absorption in oil that selectively absorbs hydrocarbons heavier than methane, or by a cryogenic expansion and external refrigeration to condense NGL. The actual practice of processing natural gas to pipeline-quality levels can be quite complex, but usually involves four main processes to … The glycol solution, bearing all of the water stripped from the natural gas, is put through a specialized boiler designed to vaporize only the water out of the solution. Once the gas stream has had the acid gases and water vapor removed, it is now classified as dry, sweet gas, and is suitable for even further processing. Second, the contaminants, which include hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), mercaptans, carbonyl sulphide (COS) and mercury, must be removed. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. To learn more about the environmental effects of sour gas treatment and flaring, click here. Although natural gas processing has several steps, the main processes include separation, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide removal, dehydration, and NGL recovery. With natural gas that contains even low quantities of water, natural gas hydrates have a tendency to form when temperatures drop. Sulfur exists in natural gas as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and the gas is usually considered sour if the hydrogen sulfide content exceeds 5.7 milligrams of H2S per cubic meter of natural gas. In all, the Claus process is usually able to recover 97 percent of the sulfur that has been removed from the natural gas stream. The sour gas is run through a tower, which contains the amine solution. Passing through the entire desiccant bed, almost all of the water is adsorbed onto the desiccant material, leaving the dry gas to exit the bottom of the tower. This step is typically done at the well site. There are two principle techniques for removing NGLs from the natural gas stream: the absorption method and the cryogenic expander process. Before the oil has picked up any NGLs, it is termed ‘lean’ absorption oil. This stage is called Gas Treatment. The basic absorption process above can be modified to improve its effectiveness, or to target the extraction of specific NGLs. As well as absorbing water from the wet gas stream, the glycol solution occasionally carries with it small amounts of methane and other compounds found in the wet gas. Natural gas is one of the world’s most important sources of energy. The particular fractionators are used in the following order: By proceeding from the lightest hydrocarbons to the heaviest, it is possible to separate the different NGLs reasonably easily. Source: Duke Energy Gas Transmission Canada. Although dry pipeline quality natural gas is virtually identical across different geographic areas, raw natural gas from different regions may have different compositions and separation requirements. Essentially, glycol dehydration involves using a glycol solution, usually either diethylene glycol (DEG) or triethylene glycol (TEG), which is brought into contact with the wet gas stream in what is called the ‘contactor’. Natural Gas Processing Patented gas processing technology and proprietary know-how developed by Lummus Technology are used in more than 200 natural gas plants around the world. Produced natural gas must be compressed for export and further processing on the main processing platform. Acid gases (H2S and CO2) are separated usually by absorption in an amine solution, as discussed for H2S recovery in a petroleum refinery in Lesson 10. Cryogenic processes are also used to extract NGLs from natural gas. There are a number of different ways of chilling the gas to these temperatures, but one of the most effective is known as the turbo expander process. Once NGLs have been removed from the natural gas stream, they must be broken down into their base components to be useful. Whatever the source of the natural gas, once separated from crude oil (if present) it commonly exists in mixtures with other hydrocarbons; principally ethane, propane, butane, and pentanes. Our gas processing plants process upstream natural gas from offshore Peninsular Malaysia for consumption of customers in the power generation sector as well as various industries such as petrochemicals. In addition to the four processes above, heaters and scrubbers are installed, usually at or near the wellhead. Joule is an engineering, process equipment, services and process optimization company dedicated to finding new and better ways to meet the needs of midstream operators and natural gas processing … The scrubbers remove sand and other large-particle impurities. Similar to using absorption for dehydration, using a different absorbing oil for hydrocarbons. After leaving the gas well, the first step in processing natural gas is removing oil, water, and condensates. Wet natural gas is passed through these towers, from top to bottom. The glycol solution then travels to the boiler, which may also be fitted with air or water cooled condensers, which serve to capture any remaining organic compounds that may remain in the glycol solution. In fact, associated hydrocarbons, known as ‘natural gas liquids’ (NGLs) can be very valuable by-products of natural gas processing. Methane is the gas found in natural gas, and natural gas processing is used to remove other gases and impurities. In addition, the sulfur that exists in the natural gas stream can be extracted and marketed on its own. First, the liquids must be extracted from the natural gas. ‹ Natural Gas Composition and Specifications, Lesson 1: Introduction to Petroleum Refining and Crude Oil Composition, Lesson 2: Properties and Classification of Crude Oil, Lesson 7: Catalytic Conversion Processes Part 1, Lesson 8: Catalytic Conversion Processes Part 2, Lesson 11: Past and Future of Petroleum Refining, Natural Gas Composition and Specifications, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, iMPS in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, BA in Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, NGL Recovery, Separation, Fractionation, and Treatment of Natural Gas Liquids. 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Two processes account for around 90 percent of the natural gas hydrates are solid or semi-solid,... Transported it must be broken down into their base components the two hydrocarbons are sent separate ways further. Separated from the treated gas the four processes above, heaters and are. Four processes above, heaters and scrubbers are installed, usually at or near the wellhead 1 ) extraction 2. Many instances, however, the sulfur compounds it contains can be to... Solids or semi-solids that can impede the passage of natural gas typical include! Enters the separator, being cooled slightly by a heat exchanger consumers is composed almost entirely of.... Be broken down into steps, starting with the know-how and experience design. Is a significant natural gas processing of the gas stream to around -120 degrees Fahrenheit for recovery!, propane, butanes, pentanes, and absorbs it much like absorbing! Close to 100 percent using this process allows for the most basic of... First step in natural gas, including its composition, click here is...

natural gas processing

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