Enter your email address and receive notifications of new posts by email. However, Spanish efforts were seriously constrained by ambivalent government policy and a lack of public support for what had become an unpopular colonial war. The impact of the Rif rebellion was also felt north of the Strait of Gibraltar. posted on: Apr 18, 2018. Demonstrators in London call for solidarity with political prisoners. That hasty evacuation panicked the Spanish troops, who fled Annual and subsequent fall-back positions in general disorder. Abd el-Krim’s forces moved quickly to fill the territorial and power vacuum created by the retreat. The Moroccan regime’s other tactics, including urging criticism of the protests from the pulpit in the city’s mosques, and a barrage of media attacks on the protesters as ‘separatists’ and ‘traitors’, failed to halt the rising tide of mobilisation. The issue of political and military responsibilities associated with the rout became a leitmotif in Spanish politics for a number of years. menasolidaritynetwork / June 16, 2017. But since Fikri’s death last year, a new set of protests have started to take place in Morocco’s Rif region, known historically for its rebellion against central authority. The revival of mass protests in the capital follows months of demonstrations in the Rif raising a range of demands for political reform and social change. Despite Abd el-Krim’s continued resistance and the proclamation of the Republic of the Rif in 1923, the situation remained stalemated. In February he launched a large raid on Tétouan to demonstrate that the rebellion … The Rif rebellion . : You are free: to share – to copy, distribute and transmit the work; to remix – to adapt the work; Under the following conditions: attribution – You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. Write a review. Riff Rebellion. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Stanford University Press, 1968 - Biography & Autobiography - 257 pages. Middle East Solidarity magazine issue 6 out now. David S. Woolman. Despite the crackdown, protests in Al Hoceima continued to grow, however, with thousands turning out nightly. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. That relationship ended abruptly in 1919 when the Abd el-Krims realized that the Spanish were intent on the military occupation and domination of their group. In 1921 begins to move his troops towards the mountain city planning put a stop to the resistance. Rif Rebellion Essay For centuries Spain controlled the mountainous areas from Ceuta to Melilla in northern Morocco. He achieved something that nobody had ever done, and he crossed most of the Rif without having to fire a shot and offering the tribes' chiefs money instead. Although those groups were nominally subject to the Moroccan sultan’s authority, most preserved considerable local autonomy and were absolutely opposed to being ruled by Spanish Christians. Register to access all of the benefits reserved to registered users or click on login if you are already registered. Biography & Autobiography / Historical History / Africa / General History / Africa / North Morocco Rif Revolt, 1921-1926 : On June 27, fifty-two activists tied to recent protests in the state’s northern Rif region were sentenced to prison terms. Spain won the Rif War. In the wake of Mohsin’s death, protests erupted across Morocco, linking issues of corruption, unemployment and social justice with the demands of the Rif’s Amazigh-speaking population for cultural, economic and social rights. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Among those arrested was Nasser Zefzafi, an important protest leader from Al Hoceima. Demonstrators also called for the release of political prisoners at a protest in London on 12 June in solidarity with the movement in Morocco. Flag of the Rif Republic (1921–1926) Sultan Yusef's reign, from 1912 to 1927, was turbulent and marked with frequent uprisings against Spain and France. Note: During the period covered by this record, there are numerous "pretenders" being proclaimed rulers, in part because of the multiplicity of historic capitals.Their names appear here, with each one being indicated as "in rebellion." Riffians (in Tarifit Irifiyen), by others also known as Riyafa or Rwafa, are a Moroccan Berber-speaking people of Northwestern Africa, who derive their name from the Riff region in the northern edge of Morocco. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It regained the territory it had lost in 1921. The Rif rebellion of January 1984. Updates? Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Rif War lasted from June 1921 to May 1926. Change ). That territory was contiguous with Spain’s long-established enclaves of Melilla and Ceuta and reflected Spain’s desire to reestablish a colonial presence after the humiliating losses of the Spanish-American War (1898). It was fought primarily in the Rif, a mountainous region of northern Morocco. «Rif Committee» : When El Khattabi dreamed of launching an armed rebellion in Morocco. By early 1925 Abd el-Krim was at the height of his power and influence, controlling at least three-fourths of the protectorate. The Spanish government handed over the administration and “pacification” of the protectorate to the Spanish army. From 1925, after Rif forces entered French possessions in Morocco, Spanish and French forces coordinated their operations against the Rif. Lawyers for the detainees told Amnesty International they saw signs of beatings on their bodies, and that the prisoners had been insulted and in some cases threatened with rape. Between 26 May and 31 May, Moroccan security forces rounded up 71 people following protests in the Rif’s regional capital, Al Hoceima and the neighbouring towns of Imzouren and Beni Bouayach. Spanish troops digging trenches at Beni Sikar, northwest of Melilla, during the Rif War. Rif, also called Rif Mountains, Arabic Al-Rif, mountain range of northern Morocco, extending from Tangier to the Moulouya River valley near the Moroccan-Algerian frontier. In the process he replaced a hierarchical society with a centralized bureaucracy and fighting force, a Muslim legal code, international trade arrangements, and a nascent network of roads and telecommunications. Posted on October 8, 2020. NOW 50% OFF! The Rif War was the last major confrontation during several centuries of conflict between the Rif peoples of northern Morocco and the Spanish. The most belligerent Rif forces were barricaded in Al Hoceima, in the heart of the Rif Mountains. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Reconsidering the Rif Revolt (1958-59) It is in this way that Hassan II (1961-1999) addressed himself to the inhabitants of northwest Morocco—and to the rest of the population—in reaction to the riots of 1984. For the greater part of its 180-mile (290-km) length, the range hugs the Mediterranean Sea, leaving only a few narrow coastal valleys suitable for agriculture or urban settlement.. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. The report that resulted—the Expediente Picasso—was damning. ( Log Out /  It highlighted negligible military leadership, poor troop morale and training, problematic frontline logistics, shoddy equipment, and the generally pitiable state of Spain’s colonial army. Arrests of the leaders of the al-Hirak al-Sha’abi (Popular Movement) — Nasser Zefzafi, Najib Ahamjik and Silya Ziani — angered, rather than intimidated, the public. articles History Imazighen morocco politic . Januar 8, 2020 Januar 8, 2020 Adra Ghadu 0 Kommentare January 1984, King Hassan II, Moroccan army, The Rif rebellion. Omissions? Exploring Morocco’s Rif Region. However over the winter, the movement outside the Rif retreated, while repression within the Rif intensified, perhaps reflecting the regime’s calculation that the protest movement had been contained and isolated. Spanish artillery firing outside Melilla during the Rif War. The response of the Rif was one of surprise and elation, followed by an effort to extend the rebellion into other parts of the central Rif and beyond. That retreat empowered the Rif who were behind the Spanish lines, and Abd el-Krim and his followers pushed the Spanish forces back to Melilla. Rif casualties may have been about 30,000, with 10,000 killed. He and his brother Mhemmed led a large-scale revolt by a coalition of Berber Riffian tribes against French and Spanish colonization of the Rif, in northern Morocco. In March 1912 Sultan Mulai Hafid signed a treaty in which he recognized a French protectorate over Morocco. The year 1921 will long be remembered in Spain on account of the signal disaster which befell Spanish arms and prestige in Morocco. 6 comments. Interview by Cole Stangler. Frustrated with the situation, in 1919 the Spanish government authorized the protectorate’s high commissioner, Gen. Dámaso Berenguer, to step up efforts to bring more of the protectorate under Spanish control. - Mounted Fugures registered users or click on login if you have suggestions to improve this article ( login. Why '' aspect of how it happened initial reaction in Spain on account of the of. Administration and “ pacification ” of the Rif War ended your blog can not posts. 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