and actual mass / density, and a summary of responses within a 10% range of the actual mass or density. Health & Safety Executive (HSE), Backs for the future Safe manual handling in construction, Norwich: HSE, 2000. - be aware that for many of the products listed below there is a difference between "bulk density" and actual "solid or material density". J.J. Smallwood, C.H. In terms of energy conservation, their most important properties are their ability to absorb and transmit heat. dm���zz� g��#yw�7)Z�8����1�?��P0��LjB��@D3D��"b�5�����8`��ELr�T��$��`�(�H� This article investigates the properties of a new generation concrete containing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP), fiber scrap aggregate (FSA), and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA). 37305, Pretoria, 2014. When using this information, it MUST be done in the following context: 1. Structural Audit is a preliminary technical survey of a building to assess its general health as a civil engineering structure. The basis of so called e, requires hazard identification and risk a, construction projects.” Contractors in tu, Engineering discipline, whether it is practiced within the context of design or construction. The purpose of the paper is to present the results of a study conducted among civil engineering students in a South African university, the objectives being to determine their knowledge and perceptions relative to the mass and density of materials and construction ergonomics. By knowing cement unit weight 1440 Kg / m 3.We can easily calculate the number of bags by multiplying the volume by unit weight. bb84b2e1ba Construction Materials Laboratory ManualConstruction Materials Laboratory Manual .. Tests on cement 17 .Specific gravity - WikipediaSpecific gravity is commonly used in industry as a simple means of obtaining information about the concentration of solutions of various materials such .. (17.5C .BUILDING MATERIALS & CONSTRUCTION17.. Conclusions include: students lack knowledge and awareness relative to the mass and density of materials, and the undergraduate programme must be reviewed in terms of addressing/referring to the mass and density of materials. ), occupational health and safety in construction management, In thrid edition of the book extensive revisions have been made. BUILDING MATERIALS,CONSTRUCTION PLANNING Department of Civil Engineering Prepared By Mr. Santosh Kamthane Assistant professor. endstream endobj 1745 0 obj <>/Metadata 84 0 R/OpenAction 1746 0 R/PageLabels 1740 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/PageMode/UseThumbs/Pages 1742 0 R/StructTreeRoot 149 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1746 0 obj <> endobj 1747 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Thumb 75 0 R/Type/Page>> endobj 1748 0 obj <>stream %%EOF To reduce workplace hazards and accidents in the construction industry, Steel making process in electric arc furnaces generates up to 15 % of slag, which is, based on its properties, classified as non-hazardous waste. Structures can be any sort it tends to be Historical, Heritage Structure, Residential building, Commercial building or an Industrial building. The results found for the combination batches indicate that both their fresh and hardened properties produce values between the individual RCA and FSA concrete batches that were mixed and tested. Furthermore, civil engineers as designers influence construction ergonomics through the specification of materials and the related methods. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers. building's initial environmental impact and its life cycle energy use. Countries International Symposium on Construction in Developing Economies: New Issues and Challenges, Santiago, Chile, 18-20 January 0 1767 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[1744 46]/Info 1743 0 R/Length 99/Prev 107487/Root 1745 0 R/Size 1790/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream O. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor it periodically by taking a professional opinion. ��[6Ͷi3���PsJ/X��7�&َ��M��L�;&��0i��̀a6�����. However, while buying the cement in stores we need to calculate the number of bags. research has been undertaken for the use of RCA in concrete, the use of FSA is a new research area and has been found in this study to have exciting potential. FOP for AASHTO for Moisture-Density Relations of Soils Using a 10 lb (4.54 kg) Rammer and an 18 in (457 mm) Drop. Such properties of building materials are categorized as follows. Magnetic proper… For example, while calculating cement mortar ratio for plastering we will get the weight of cement in m3 or cubic feet.. Weight of manufactured products should … Republic of South Africa, Government Gazette No. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. It has small bulk density. Therefore, researches have been conducted to establish the potential use of slag in different activities. Architects and Project, ity of materials between often to always / always when, ilt environment disciplines should consid, indicates the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an, ideration of the mass and density of materia, record a mass or density relative to the materials. material categories. Durability concerns and limitations of the methods of construction are discussed, and areas of future research are identified. Accreditation panels should review the extent to which designing for construction H&S and. Several factors need to be considered when choosing the materials for a construction job, including: 1. It is essential to mai0ntain quality in terms of material quality, mixture with their desire specification, workmanship etc. Sheet 500. Findings include: knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited, and students appreciate that the mass and density of materials impacts on construction ergonomics. Physical properties 2. Construction Materials. The highest difference is relative to a Double Roman concrete roof tile, ithin 10% range of the actual mass / density is 1, is a lesser known material, which is also handled and, and mean mass / density response, percentage difference, and summary of resp, ) indicates the rating is between limited to below average / below averag, liberation when required to record the mass and density of, Respondents’ rating of their knowledge of, Limited………………………..…..............Extensive, terms of percentage responses to a five poi, e ranging between 1.00 and 5.00. Deacon, D.J.L. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Course Objectives To develop a basic understanding of key material properties, requirements, and related behavior characteristics of typical construction materials. As illustrated in Figure 1 - 4, there is a clear correlation between material density and thermal conductivity. Then, the Health & Safety Executive (HSE) [3] states that one, construction industry accidents reported to the HSE in, cycle of a structure. Clients, ssment (BRA); prepare an H&S specification based on the, standards incorporated into the regulations are co, ation; include in a report to the client before tender, may affect the pricing of the work, the geotechnical, gned or when the design is changed; modify t, cifically states that designers should: receive training, st identify the hazards and the risks to which persons, administered questionnaire based research studies, first out of nine ergonomic aspects requiring atten, lly handled, and in the case of the latter, , which effectively constituted a captive, %. Construction materials in Australia Introduction to construction materials in Australia There is a wide range of possible building materials available for our use and the performance of these materials has an impact on the cost, aesthetics and function of the building. Owners and consumers are looking for more efficient building systems that would decrease this use of energy. Then, Civil, Engineers involved in the contracting sector of the built environment, should consider the mass and density of, Consulting Engineers South Africa (CESA), the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA), the South African, Forum of Civil Engineering Contractors (SAFCEC), and th. endstream endobj startxref Thermal Properties of Common Building Materials. Asphalt concrete is … 3 by 27.68; for kg/m 3, multiply density in lb/in. Sustainable construction materials that have low embodied energy include earthen construction and straw bale construction. COMMON MATERIALS Material Density (kg/m3) Material Density (kg/m3) Air 1.29 Iron, cast 7209 Aluminium 2691 Kerosene 817 Asphalt 1506 Lead 11342 Brass 8394 Limestone 2739 Brick, common 1794 Manganese ore 3204 Bronze 8715 Marble 2.56 Cement, Portland 1506 Mortar, rubble 2483 Construction Materials & Current Market Prices These are construction materials required for any construction project whether it is home or for commercial purpose. Summary of mass and density of materials responses. This is notable as, literature and for that matter, reality. The material chosen to construct the structure of a building has the potential to reduce the, Because global landfills are filling at a fast rate with waste that can potentially be recycled, it is now time for the development and implementation of sustainable materials in construction. d the mean mass / densities according to respondents. 2015 The Authors. %PDF-1.6 %���� Bulk density is another important properties of building materials.The bulk density is … h�b```c``����� |�����X�����&��~k`P�5�Y�m�yÀ,�� l ��!U9�0KF��@Z����_d��o�%�q���s������$�20�.�g��r��'l�!��� � � Wood. The level of occupational health and safety in the construction Industry of Uganda. Furthermore, they should facilitate adequate financial provision for H&S, ergonomics included, by contractors. Consequently, their thermal conductivity is mainly determined by … 2%wq����t�(���@K_� �����ŧ��/��||,�u��f����d�E���,2^c�E��������;�j�|�ҹi�-� ���K��T��Q)7��,� �'�F��GzW>n��%R�/O�I�d�}�W S~\V Although on average 95.8% of respondents attem, presented, on average, only 12.4% were wit, percentage differences between actual mass / densities an, of materials impact on construction ergonomics, as the MS, impact to a near major / near major impact, and also: th, consider the mass and density of materials when practicing their discipline, and the potential of the consideration of, the mass and density of materials to contribut. Construction Ergonomics: General Contractor (GC) Perceptions, ergonomicsSA. (3.83) indicates the appreciation to be between some, third of all construction industry accidents repo, il Engineering included, should optimise the lev, le of the mass and density of materials, including, e South African Institution of Civil Engineers (SA, gonomics practice notes, and promote continuing professional development, : H Lingard and S Rowlinson (eds. The Book is considerably modified version of the 2000 edition. review under responsibility of AHFE Conference. Bulk density. The construction industry in South Africa and worldwide generates a disproportionate number of fatalities, injuries and is associated with disease, the direct and indirect cost of which contributes to the cumulative cost of construction. Conclusions include that: students lack knowledge and awareness relative to the mass and density of materials; students are precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and Civil Engineering education must be reviewed in terms of addressing / referring to construction health and safety, and ergonomics in other subjects. 85 of 1993, Pretoria, 1993. International Labour Office (ILO), Safety and health in construction, ILO, Geneva, 1992. Related Resources: materials. Spon Press: Oxon, 2005. Duggal PDF By Saad Iqbal. Design practices should include a category mass and density of materials in their practice libraries. This is a list of building materials.Many types of building materials are used in the construction industry to create buildings and structures.. Densities of Metals and Elements Table. The results indicate that both the fresh and hardened RCA concrete properties were similar to those of the control concrete containing only natural aggregate. Crushed aggregate is the most common improved surfacing material. The purpose of the paper is, to present the results of a study conducted among civil, university, the objectives being to determin, the mass and density of materials as limite, include that: students lack knowledge and awarene. some potential to near major / near major potential. density units converter; Note! 3 by 1728; for g/cm 3, multiply density in lb/in. Apart from metals and ceramics, most of the building materials have a certain degree of porosity. T 196 (PDF 1.0 MB) Air Content of Concrete (Volumetric Method) (Checklist Only) T 209 (PDF 254 KB) FOP for AASHTO for Method of Test for Maximum Specific Gravity of Hot Mix Asphalt — "Rice Density" T 231 (PDF 1.4 MB) In terms of related injuries, pain in the back and joints is a major, attributable to manual materials handling. 2.1.4 Housekeeping . land fill run by the Tube Rolling Mill Sisak and the analyses conducted in cooperation with the Faculty of Agronomy and the Croatian Institute of Civil Engineering, both in Zagreb, have shown that slag can be used for agricultural purposes as inorganic soil enhance, in construction industry as an additive to cement and in civil engineering as an additive for road construction. Many injurie, rm of sprains and strains arising from the hand, materials and the related methods. A brick is a type of block used to build walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction. (C) 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers, Mass and Density of Materials: Knowledge and Perceptions. A collapsed mechanism has increased and today?s Structures are getting collapsed before their service life. (CPD) relative to construction H&S and ergonomics. 1744 0 obj <> endobj Some of the most important properties of building materials are their strength, weight, durability, and cost. Ergonomics in Construction: Where Does it Hurt? Occupational Health & Safety Act: No. R. 84 Occ, [5] M. Behm, An Analysis of Construction Accidents from a Design Pe, [6] Republic of South Africa, Government Gazette No. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000241. Local codes should be consulted for live load requirements. Download Building Materials by S.K. of materials is between limited to below average. The information presented has been compiled from: • • • CMHC • NRC/IRC • • Manufacturer data . The highest w, onse and actual mass / density is relative to marble, %). 8-18, 2002. Table 2 presents the actual and mean response mass / density. Table 3. V.A Monk, Ergonomics in Construction, In: H Lingard and S Rowlinson (eds. Actual mass / density and mean mass / density response, percentage difference, and summary of responses within a 10% range of the actual mass or density. J.J. Smallwood, Ergonomics in construction: South African perspectives, In: Proceedings of CIB W107 Construction in Developing h�bbd``b`VG���8 $غ�P([b-;@DH��IDLq��WH�E�"�A�H�\LH��a`bdK ��Hk��o�7 �( ] Through different replacements of these aggregates in the concrete, both individually and in combination, conclusive test results were produced. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. '�bd� koE>`�xe6�f`�ς*�bkF>�v���@���u��c`\����@� Ai3� Many injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which process is managed by, inter alia, civil engineers. 2006, D:\4.6.pdf, 2006. The construction materials that are included in the database are presented in Table 1. Following table shows unit weight of materials used at construction site. This may not be clear in the description of the products. Always double check the values with other sources before important calculations. J.J. Smallwood, Construction Ergonomics: General Contractor (GC) Perceptions, ergonomicsSA, 14(1), pp. Density of Some Common Building Materials: These values for density of some common building materials were collected from sites across the Internet and are generally in agreement with multiple sites. The lowest response was relative to Double Roman concrete roof tile, namely 91.8%. Fiberglass Batt 3.14 Fiberglass Blown (attic) 2.20 (1 Fiberglass Blown (wall) 3.20 Rock Wool Batt 3.14 Rock Wool Blown (attic) 3.10 Rock Wool Blown (wall) 3.03 Cellulose Blown (attic) 3.13 Cellulose Blown (wall) 3.70 Vermiculite 2.13 Air-entrained Concrete 3.90 Urea terpolymer foam 4.48 Rigid fiberglass (> 4 lb/ft3) 4.00 Expanded Polystyrene (bead- board) 4.00 Extruded Polystyrene 5.00 Polyurethane (foamed … In this project, some Non-destructive test and chemical tests will be done to check the quality and strength parameter of the present structure. Density (Kg/m 3) Density (lb/ft 3) 1: WATER: 1000: 62.43: Wood (various types) 2: Balsa: 170: 10.6: 3: Bamboo: 300 – 400: 18.7 – 25: 4: Pine: 370 – 530: 23 – 33: 5: Cedar: 380: 23.7: 6: Aspen: 420: 26.2: 7: Willow wood: 420: 26.2: 8: African mahogany: 495 – 850: 31 – 53: 9: Honduras mahogany: 545: 34: 10: American red wood: 450: 28: 11: European red wood: 510: 31.8: 12: … ... –density –specific gravity –porosity –permeability –surface energy The following constitute the sali, the mass and density of materials is limited; s, ergonomics; students rate their knowledge of, appreciate the potential of the considerati, students are precluded from conducting optimum, © 2015 The Authors. ), occupational health and safety in construction, of Ontario (CSAO), Back Care and Manual Materi, upational Health and Safety Act, 1993 Constr, rspective, The Center to Protect Workers’ Rights, Silver Spr, ccupational Health & Safety Act: No. Recommendations include: tertiary construction management education must address construction ergonomics; employer and professional associations, and statutory councils must raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics and the mass and density of materials. However, this is rarely considered during conceptual design. The FSA concrete had a lower compressive strength than the control concrete; however, it produced sufficient strength for nonstructural applications. Republic of South Africa, No. Native soil is the least expensive, and often poorest material. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. A well designed, economical building takes the following factors into account: Published by Elsevier B.V, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/, n Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the, Department of Construction Management, Nelson Mandela Metropolita, Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, and worldwide generates a disproportionate, contributes to the cumulative cost of construction. Ergonomics in construction: South African perspectives. R. 84 Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 Construction Regulations 2014. While there is a wide variety … The lowest percentage difference between the mean resp, The mean of the percentage responses that we, lowest being 0% relative to m2 glass 5 mm thick, and the highest being 50% relative to concrete. s ��1͔�1Ô2x��L9�ЅLE��9�y������ݻ`�7`��0�����) fyq���'�j��@Ǘ�ق�A4 ��� During a subs, indentified materials handling, resulting in it being ranked, South African built environment practitioners surveyed during a construction, extent to which aspects could contribute to an improvement in con, a mean score ranging between 1.00 and 5.00 is: constructability (general) (4.53); awaren, terms of the mass and density of materials mechanization and specification are of particular importance as in the, case of the former, can they be mechanica, The sample stratum consisted of BSc (Civil Engineering), pertaining to the mass and density of material, type questions. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Jan A. Wium, Mass and Density of Materials: Civil Engineering Students’ Knowledge and Perceptions.pdf, All content in this area was uploaded by Jan A. Wium on Mar 08, 2016, Mass and Density of Materials: Civil Engineering Students’ Knowledge and Perce, Peer-review under responsibility of AHFE Conference, Available online at www.sciencedirect.com, 6th International Conference on Applied Huma, The construction industry in South Africa, associated with disease, the direct and indir, the mass and density of materials and construction ergonomics. limited to below average / below average. An Analysis of Construction Accidents from a Design Perspective. It is normally started as the initial step for repair. The study was conducted using a self, Table 1 provides a summary of the response. Rowlinson ( eds in, [ 4 ] Republic of South Africa, No S Ergonomics! Be clear in the case of fresh properties, requirements, and behavior. 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2020 density of construction materials list pdf