Take an orchestra, for instance, one that consists of all the best musicians in the world but lacks a conductor. Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 9(2), 57-64. doi: 10.1177/107179190200900205. [online] www.jameslconsulting.com. Fiedler, F. (1967). Zaccaro, S. (2007). Get your paperback, digital, or audio copy of my latest book from all major book stores. Available at: http://www.jameslconsulting.com/documents/GreatManTheory.pdf. Two Decades of Research and Development in Transformational Leadership. Related posts: Short note on the Path-Goal theory of leadership […] Retrieved from http://ijms.ut.ac.ir/, Klenke, K. (2007). Emotional intelligence and leadership. McCleskey, J. Leader-member exchange theories suggest that a mutual exchange between leader and follower can produce loyal and committed relationships. The role of the situation in leadership. Proponents of these theories argue that leaders possess traits or characteristics that make them different from other people and give them leadership advantage. Leader-member exchange theories suggest that a mutual exchange between leader and follower can produce loyal and committed relationships. From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Transactional leadership differs from transformational leadership in the leader/ follower exchange relationship, with transformational leadership inspiring followers to move beyond self interests to collective interests and to do more than was originally expected (Hartog, Muijen and Koopman, 1997). Proponents of transformational theory including Bass (1985, 1991) and Avolio and Bass (1995) define transformational leadership in terms of the leader’s effects on followers and argue that transformative leaders have exceptional influence over followers whose feelings of trust, admiration, trust and loyalty towards the leader motivates them to make self-sacrifices, commit to difficult objectives and achieve much more than is expected of them. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 1(1), pp.21-36. The attempt to identify the skills and tactics of different leaders will always be an interesting study but there is no one true way to be a leader. Leadership and organizations. Judge, T., Bono, J., Ilies, R. and Gerhardt, M. (2002). (2004). As the employees gain ability and become more confident, the leader will adopt a participating and delegating style. According to Storey (2004), the study of leadership in organisations has evolved through the years with changing theories of leadership and leadership development. In other words, the level of follower maturity (job and psychological) determines the correct style of leadership. INTRODUCTION The term leadership is a relatively recent addition to the English language. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The actor Analytical perspective: • Actors (which also determine leadership behavior) Focus: • Groups, coalitions, leaders (roles and positions) Theories: • Rational choice theory, cognitive theories, information Elijah is a business management consultant. The Leadership Quarterly, 8(2), 153-170. doi:10.1016/S1048-9843(97)90014-X, Graen, G.B. New York: Harper & Row. investigation of leadership as a conception, e.g. In order to inspire, innovative, and produce creativity within an organization, leaders should be aware and mindful of their followers’ perception of them. Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. According to Storey (2004), the 1980’s saw the development of new leadership theories promoting the concept of transformation, visionary, charismatic and inspirational leadership. Conclusion. A. The managerial grid: key orientations for achieving production through people. The combination of these variables results in different styles of management as shown in figure 2 below. This is not an example of the work produced by our Essay Writing Service. Hershey and Blanchard (1984) present four leadership styles including directive, consultative, participating and delegating which are related to the readiness (maturity) of followers, for instance, leaders will adopt a directive style in a situation where followers lack readiness or the ability and confidence to perform a task. I hope you have found the revision and enhancement of past modules useful. ), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. Blake, R. and Mouton, J. Kirkpatrick, S. and Locke, E. (1991). Hartog, D., Muijen, J. and Koopman, P. (1997). A review of leadership theories shows a progression from great man and trait theories to new leadership theories including transformation and transaction theories. According to Derue et al (2011) criticism of leader-trait paradigm has led to the development of behavioural theories of leadership which assume that leadership capability is not inherent, but can be learned. Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: an integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity.  “Leadership is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal” (Northouse, 2012). A leader is crucial to the success of every team. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(3), pp.329-354. Essay on Leadership # Theories of Leadership (Essay 5) Some of the popular theories of leadership are: (i) Trait Theories: Trait is the personal quality of an individual. In conclusion, there are four distinct types of situational leadership styles. (1995). Vroom, V. and Jago, A. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. ‘Participative’ theory suggests that the ideal leadership style is one that takes the input of others into account. Figure 1: Past qualitative reviews of the traits of effective leaders ( Judge et al, 2002: 766). Rafferty, A. and Griffin, M. (2004). Servant leadership: Its origin, development, and application in organizations. Executive, 5(2), pp.48-60. Vroom, V. and Yetton, P. (1973). These steps are identifying the crucial tasks, diagnosing members’ readiness level, and settling on matching leadership style. If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help! In N. Nohria, & R. Khurana (Eds. Contingency theory, … Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), pp.347-381. Leadership Theories: The Conclusion These are some of the main leadership theories being used in the corporate world today. Likert, R. (1961). Leadership have different definitions given by different authors and practitioners, but generally it is relationship in which the behaviour or actions of people are influenced by one person. What exactly makes a great leader? New York: Wiley. Trait theory. Business Summary of Theories Situational leadership, developed by professor Paul Hersey and author and consultant Ken Blanchard. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 37(2), pp.309-325. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. It is clear, as shown in figure 1 below, that different researchers have proposed different traits and there is no consistency in trait theories. Transactional and Transformational Leadership: A Constructive/Developmental Analysis. Reddin called The 3-D Management Style Theory. Hoffman, B., Woehr, D., Maldagen-Youngjohn, R. and Lyons, B. London: Routledge. Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). Academy of Management Review, 12(4), pp.648-657. 1st Jun 2020 (2014). (2009). Bass, B. Behavioural theories of leadership are based on the belief that great leaders are made, not born. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure. Journal of Management. A review of leadership theory and competency frameworks. doi:10.1177/0149206307308913, Graeff, C. L. (1997). Shamir, B., House, R. and Arthur, M. (1993). He writes about business marketing, development, branding, technology, and how to develop and use marketing strategies and techniques effectively. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5, Hassanzadeh, J. F. (2014). Leadership theories: Considering leadership reveals school of thought giving different leadership theories such as Great Man theory, trait theory, behaviourist theory, situational leadership theory, contingency theory, transactional theory and transformational theory. (Amanchukwu, Stanley and Ololube 2015). The same concept applies to communities, companiesCorporate StructureCorporate structure refers to the organizati… The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. This researcher also claims that empirical studies have produced mixed results on the effectiveness of the Grid and argues that there is need to have information on other variables such as management and organisation change programs before definitive conclusions can be made on the effectiveness of the model. Summarize the Conclusions of Trait Theories of Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/luisrodrigues/textos/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf. As for theories of leadership that suggest leaders are born, it should be emphasized that leaders can certainly also be made. Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) state that reviewers have labelled the approach as too simplistic, futile, dangerous and a product of self-delusion. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Sendjaya, S., & Sarros, J. C. (2002). Understanding leadership style can help a company build a foundation that can lead to improved productivity, employee retention, and improved employee relations. According to Yukl leadership is:- 1. Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1434-1452. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0034, McCleskey, J. This theory slightly reassembles the ‘great man’ leadership theory that characterized much of the ancient Greek and Roman view of leadership and leaders. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), pp.76-93. A contingency theory of leadership. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. (1978). VAT Registration No: 842417633. Leadership and decision-making. Theory and practice of leadership. Each style is expressed on a scale ranging from 1-9, with 1 representing minimal concern and 9 representing maximal concern. Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The theories selected to analyze by the learner are contingency, behavioral, transformation, and transactional. *You can also browse our support articles here >, http://cisvu.net/mod/page/view.php?id=1109, http://www2.fcsh.unl.pt/docentes/luisrodrigues/textos/Lideran%C3%A7a.pdf, http://www.jameslconsulting.com/documents/GreatManTheory.pdf. Each of these theories focuses on building trust through a mutually beneficial relationship between leaders and followers. (2013). (2011). Bass (1999) argues that transformational leadership builds on from transactional leadership and states that “changes in the marketplace and workforce over the two decades have resulted in the need for leaders to become more transformational and less transactional if they were to remain effective” (Bass, 1999: 9). Some say leaders are born but understanding the concepts of leadership and the traits that make an ordinary individual evolve into a leader, anyone can accomplish the desired position in the society. So that concludes our look at leadership, and what makes an effective leader. Rafferty and Griffin (2004) also argue that despite the popularity of transformational theories, there are concerns regarding the definition of the sub-dimensions of the model and these concerns have resulted in empirical research providing mixed support for the differentiation of the components of the model. 1. Bass (1985, 1991) presents a model of transformation and transaction leadership which has three dimensions of transactional leadership, namely, contingent reward, management by exception (active) and management by exception passive) and four dimensions for transformation leadership, namely, charisma , inspiration, intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration. Developing a Forced-Choice Measure of Conflict-Handling Behavior: The “Mode” Instrument. Situational Leadership(R) After 25 Years: A Retrospective. Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter. Authentic leadership: A self, leader, and spiritual identity perspective. For instance, Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) argue that the six traits that distinguish leaders from non-leaders include drive, desire to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability and business knowledge. The trait leadership theory states that a leader has inherent characteristics and personal traits that he or she is born with. According to Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991), great man leadership theories were popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com. A quantitative review of the relationship between individual differences and leader effectiveness. Conclusion The four leadership theories identified in this essay – trait, behavioral, contingency, and transformational can be represented as an effective and efficient pathway in leadership to reach the transformational style of leadership. My four latest blog post (authentic leadership, situational leadership, servant leadership, leader member exchange) have evaluated the nature of leadership styles and their theories. Houston, Tex. London: SAGE. Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) refer to transformation theories as charismatic theories and argue that they emphasise different leader behaviour than that emphasised by earlier theories of organisational leadership. Copyright © 2003 - 2020 - UKEssays is a trading name of All Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales. it should be considered whether the tasks earlier addressed as management functions can be properly described and explained by one or more specific kinds of leadership or whether the term “leadership” is inevitably associated with a … The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.001, Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O., & Weber, T. J. LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND MODELS 1. Not all leaders are managers, nor are all managers leaders. (1964). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure†. Personnel Psychology, 64(1), pp.7-52, Eckmann, H. (2005). The research is structured as follows: section one presents theories focusing on leader characteristics or traits including great man theory and trait theory; section two presents theories based on leader behaviour and situational models and section three presents the new leadership theories including transformational and transactional theories. Figure 2: Management Grid (source: http://cisvu.net/mod/page/view.php?id=1109). Yukl (1999) also states that weaknesses of transformational leadership theory includes ambiguous constructs, narrow focus on dyadic processes, omission of some relevant behaviours, insufficient specification of limiting conditions and a bias towards heroic conceptions of leadership. Storey, J. Reference this. Trait theories of leadership focus on personal qualities and characteristics. My personal preference is the "participative leadership style" and the most likely choice for me to use when in … On the other hand, House and Aditya (1997) propose four factors including achievement motivation, prosocial influence motivation, adjustment and self-confident. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. ‘’The process of influencing others to understand an… This is a weakness that has been identified by other researchers including Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) and Yukl (1999). Bass, B. Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. These researchers state that traits only provide the potential for leadership and additional factors including skills, vision and implanting the vision are necessary for effective leadership. The situational leader. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), pp.9-32. This assumption that leadership depends on the qualities of the leader makes trait theories seem similar to great man theories but trait theories differ because they do not assume that leadership is limited to a few heroic men (Judge et al, 2002). Servant leadership theory has suggested that servant leaders are leaders who naturally have a desire to serve first and aspire others to lead. Table 1 : Summary of main leadership theories (Storey, 2004). (1978). Lorsch (2010) also states that contingency theories assume that one type of leadership can fit all situations and this is not plausible, for instance, the leader of an army platoon would have different leadership challenges than a sales manager or a CEO or even a senior partner in a law firm. The theories of leadership are1. Leadership. and Uhl-Bien, M. (1995). The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. (2013). doi:10.1177/0149206310393520, Cubero, C. G. (2007). Psychological Bulletin, 56(4), pp.241-270. Burns, J. Managing Your Business Using Loyalty, Relationships, and Engagement. Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). Mann (1959) includes masculinity, dominance, adjustment, conservatism and extroversion in his list of traits. Interactional Leadership Theories (1970-Present) The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behaviour is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation. Abstract Leadership styles and theories are essential to an organization’s structure, culture, and development. It is also interesting to note that despite the vivid difference between culture and leadership, the organization has been able to merge both in so many areas. Derue, D., Nahrgang, J., Wellman, N. and Humphrey, S. (2011). Blake and Mouton (1964) developed the Managerial Grid which identifies five theories of managerial behaviour which are based on two variables, concern for production and concern for people. Bass (1999: 10) defines transactional leadership as “the exchange relationship between leader and follower to meet their own self interests”. Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate for different types of decision-making. Researchers however, have failed to agree on what traits are universal and trait theories suffer from a lack of “a structure in describing personality leading to a wide range of traits being investigated under different labels” (Judge et al, 2002: 766). American Psychologist, 62(1), pp.6-16. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp.285-305. Gill (2011) claims that contingency theories like Fiedler’s (1967) model and path-goal theory which develops Fielders contingency theory have been criticised for inconsistent results and measuring problems. Vroom and Jago (2007) refer to heroic concepts of leadership which they argue emerged with the great man theory of history whereby major historical events were assumed to be the work of great men with vision and genius. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. No plagiarism, guaranteed! A theory of leadership effectiveness. You can view samples of our professional work here. Kuhnert, K. and Lewis, P. (1987). The characteristics of transformational and transactional leaders are shown in figure 4 below. Behavioural theories as advocated by these researchers identified four styles of leadership behaviour: concern for tasks (production or output), concern for people, directive leadership and participative leadership. Shamir, House and Arthur (1993) state that existing motivational theories such as exchange theories, reinforcement theories and cognitive theories cannot be used to explain the claims that a variety of behaviours can transform follower behaviour from self-interests to collective interests. To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below: If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! Research shows that each of these theories has its strengths and weaknesses and there is no ideal leadership theory. Theories: • System theory, institutional theory, discourse analysis, social identity theory, etc. Lorsch, J. W. (2010). Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that this simply means that transactional leaders give followers something they want in return for leaders getting what they want. Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), pp.855-875. The bright and dark sides of leader traits: A review and theoretical extension of the leader trait paradigm. Mann, R. (1959). Contingency Theory of Leadership: Match your leadership style to the situation. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 421–449. Nonsanctioned leadership is often as important or more important than formal influence. Figure 3: Situational leadership model (Blanchard, Zigarmi and Nelson, 1993: 26). Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Registered office: Venture House, Cross Street, Arnold, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, NG5 7PJ. American Sociological Review, 37(2), p.117. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(1), 68-97. CONCLUSION A review of leadership theories shows a progression from great man and trait theories to new leadership theories including transformation and transaction theories. The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?. Iranian Journal Of Management Studies, 7(2), 391-412. Situational, Transformational, and Transactional Leadership and Leadership Development. (1985). Blake and Mouton (1964) argue that it is possible for managers to learn in a classroom and revise their practices and procedures thereby moving towards an ideal 9, 9 (team management) organisational environment. Retrieved from, Fred O. Walumbwa, Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, Tara S. Wernsing, and Suzanne J. Peterson. Storey (2004) states that important behavioural studies include Ohio State University, which is credited with developing the Leader’s Behaviour Description Questionnaire, University of Michigan (Katz and Khan, 1978; Likert, 1961) and Blake and Mouton (1964). Lorsch (2010) argues that contingency theories are focused on leaderships in primary groups and ignore leadership in larger organisations. Judge, T., Piccolo, R. and Kosalka, T. (2009). Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective. Bass (1991) states that transformative leaders are able to achieve these results through behaviours including individualised consideration, intellectual stimulation, charisma and inspirational motivation. New patterns of management. According to Gill (2011) contingency theories suggest there is no one best way of leadership because successful leaders use different styles depending on the nature of the situation and the followers. Kilmann, R. and Thomas, K. (1977). This type of leader encourages participation and contribution from team members, making the team members feel more involved and therefore committed to the decision making process. Great man or great myth? Authentic leadership has promoted the notion that leaders should be self-aware, honest, and transparent. Lieberson, S. and O’Connor, J. Contingency theories of leadership explain the factors on which it has to depend to produce best performance; these factors could be either internal or external. London: Routledge. Great Man Theory: A personal account of attraction. To be successful, the leader must diagnose the situation and select appropriate strategies from a large repertoire of skills. Hoffman et al (2011: 349) argue that great man theories fell out of favour “amid questions as to the evidentiary basis underlying disposition-leadership associations”. Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Bass, B. In other words, these theories asserted that great men were born, not made (Hoffman et al., 2011). When we look at the le… Similarly, situational leadership can be generalized into three steps. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that no traits are universally associated with effective leadership and argue that situational factors are also influential. The Leadership Quarterly, 6(2), pp.199-218. [Pittsburgh]: University of Pittsburgh Press. Organization Science, 4(4), pp.577-594. Bass (1999) states that this exchange may take the form of the leader clarifying through direction or participation what the follower needs to do in order to be rewarded for the effort (contingency reward) or taking an active or passive role in monitoring and correcting follower performance. Bryman, A. “Great Man” Theories:(1900-1940) Great Man theories assume that the capacity for leadership is a basic – that great leaders are born with innate qualities, not made and intended to lead. Trait theory believes that successful leader has certain personal characteristics. New York: McGraw-Hill. Leadership Theories &Their Contemporary Application Unlike researches that have a drawn conclusion and obtainable and quantifiable result, leadership a human behavior or a set of attributes not easily quantifiable has been the interest of many researchers and scholars. Yukl, G. (1999). Leadership in organizations. (2014). (2007). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press. Other behavioural leadership theories include path-goal theory, leadership substitutes theory and normative contingency theory (McClesky, 2014). (2014). Two most important and prominent categorization of leadership theories are contingency and situational theories. Company Registration No: 4964706. Leadership in organizations. Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that Bass’s (1985) model of transactional and transformation leadership is based on the model developed by Burns (1978) and argue that this model lacks an explanation of the internal processes which lead to the development of the actions of transformational and transactional leaders, in other words, neither Burns (1978) or Bass (1985) has “provided a framework for understanding the motivational states or personality differences that give rise to these two types of leadership” (Kunhert and Lewis, 1987: 648). A summary of these theories is shown in table 1 (Appendix 1). Gill, R. (2011). And empirical extensions theories include path-goal theory, institutional theory, leadership concepts and theories are on. Locke ( 1991 ), pp.648-657 employee retention, and development in transformational and transactional of Charismatic leadership: and... And leader-member exchange ( LMX ) theory of leadership: development and Validation a! And O ’ Connor, J psychological Bulletin, 56 ( 4 ), pp.21-36 distinct types of leadership. Beneficial relationship between individual differences and leader effectiveness, pp.7-52, Eckmann, H. 2005... Trading name of all Answers Ltd, a company registered in England and Wales ranging from 1-9, with representing! 1 ( Appendix 1 ), pp.241-270 of past modules useful lists of traits are then compared to those potential. Psychological Bulletin, 56 ( 4 ), 117-130 2002: 766 ) ignore leadership larger. 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