It was Gustavus’ decision to enter into the Thirty Years’ War in 1630 that he is most famous for internationally. Reversed the course of the war so dramatically that it has been regarded as the most decisive engagement of the long conflict. Historians are divided on why Gustavus chose to join the war, which had begun as a conflict between Protestant and Catholic states in the Holy Roman Empire (now Germany), following the election of Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II who was trying to impose his religion on the Empire. —Nils Ahnlund, Gustavus Adolphus the Great. ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. Richelieu. The only way… One of the king’s great achievements, looking at his reign from perhaps his viewpoint, was the creation of an army that did great things on the battlefield, but more detail would have been welcome. -- Junction of Wallenstein with the Bavarians. Gustavus Adolphus, the Golden King, the Lion of the North, and the Father of Modern Warfare was a 17th-century Swedish warrior-king who basically invented the concept of the cavalry sabre charge primarily because he wanted to lead thundering hordes of rampaging cavalry blade-first into the enemy – even though the dude couldn't even wear armor into combat because his ribs … Yet, in this stage of the war, “The Lion of the North” or “the Golden King”, as Gustavus Adolphus the Great of Sweden was known, entered the conflict. What were the other results of the Thirty Years' War? -- Distress of the Emperor. The Thirty Years’ War resulted in no outright winner when peace was signed between the major belligerents in 1648. ); widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus, or as Gustavus Adolphus the Great (Swedish language: Gustav Adolf den store, Latin language: Gustavus Adolphus Magnus, a formal posthumous distinction passed by the Riksdag of the Estates in 1634); was the King of Sweden from 1611 … Gustavus Adolphus was an accomplished soldier and with the help of Catholic France, he freed himself from the war against Poland with the Treaty of Altmark of September 1629. Lutzen was a pyrrhic victory for the Protestants, who had lost thousands of their best men and their greatest leader. 1. He was the financier behind the various Protestant coalitions and interventions (including that of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden),and it was Richelieu that convinced Louis XIII that France had to enter the war directly to prevent a total Hapsburg victory after the Swedish army and its Weimariner allies were destroyed at Nordlingen in 1634. So I've been reading a lot of literature and many, many modern figures often refer to Gustavus Adolphus as the "Father of (modern) War". Richelieu, however, turned against the Habsburgs young Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, paying him a subsidy of a million livres a year by the treaty of Bärwald of the 23rd of January 1631. Now of course I'm aware Gustavus was the King of Sweden but between the modern era and the 1600's when he lived, there were many kings and many commanders. Protestant 2. -- Gustavus takes Munich. He was well prepared for the greatest war of his life. The rapid rise to fame of Gustavus Adolphus, the young King of Sweden, his military innovations and dramatic victories in battle turned the tide in The Thirty Years War … The organisation of the Swedish army with its smaller unit sizes and higher numbers of NCOs and junior officers also became the standard model for Europe. 1. Gustavus’s cousin Sigismund was the king of Sweden when Gustavus was born. Gustavus is the only Swedish monarch to have been granted the title of ‘Magnus’, meaning ‘Great’, posthumously making his full title Gustavus Adolphus Magnus. Among the Swedes besides Gustavus, Baner and Torstensson stand out. 2. Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor, anxious to preserve Sweden's hold in Germany, supported Richelieu. -- Gustavus Adolphus defends Nuremberg. Gustavus Adolphus lead Sweden during her glory years in the Thirty Years War. After reading Peter Wilson's Europe's Tragedy: The history of the 30 Years War I don't understand why Gustavus Adolphus is so respected as a general. Gustavus was crowned at age 17 when his father, Karl IX, died prematurely in the midst of the bitter War of Kalmar with Denmark.… “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Fighting the Holy Roman Empire – Part I On 9 December 1594, Gustav II Adolf was born. 2. Gustavus Adolphus faced big problems when he came to the Swedish throne in 1611. Gustav II Adolf (9 December 1594 – 6 November 1632, O.S. The initial phase, what historians refer to as the Bohemian Revolt, was a result of the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, attempting to assert imperial and Catholic control over territories that had broken away during the Reformation. King of Sweden, military reformer, statesman, and greatest general of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). The northern German territories would remain Protestant. Give the date and the terms of the Peace of Westphalia. He is accredited with elevating Sweden to a position of immense political, military, and religious stature through his involvement in the Thirty Years War. “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North). Though not as good strategically as Gustavus, they were still formidable marchers and good at maneuver, and the former, in addition to winning some imaginative victories, largely helped recover the Swedish military position after Nordlingen. Even after 1955, other historians of Gustavus or the Thirty Years’ War do not immediately debate the “military revolution” theory. A tactical genius and military innovator, Gustavus II Adolphus was a war captain soldiers could follow with pride. The Swedish army was a product of several military reforms and innovations. Why was there overwhelming success in the victory at Breitenfeld? In the end, it played a significant role in creating the terms for the peace treaty. What side did France join during the Thirty Years War? Gustavus Adolphus. Gustavus Adolphus is one of the most inspiring characters of the Reformation. 1. Also known as Gustav II and Gustav Adolph. -- He offers to Join Gustavus Adolphus. Sweden’s King Gustavus Adolphus, with his flowing blond hair and unfailing courage, won the title “Lion of the North” among his countrymen, his allies and his enemies. His tactics were to repeatedly send his troops in frontal attacks on Imperials. He had an agreement with France. Why? -- Wallenstein re-assumes the Command. 1. The Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years’ War, which took place between 1630 and 1635, was a major turning point of the war, often considered to be an independent conflict. 1618 2. a. Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. He was born in Stockholm, to Duke Charles from the Vasa Dynasty. Gustavus Adolphus day is marked in Sweden on 6 November. ... threatening Gustavus Adolphus’s supply chain. France feared the growth of Hapsburg power. Gustavus Adolphus: A History of the Art of War from Its Revival After the Middle Ages to the End of the Spanish Succession War, with a Detailed Account of the Campaigns of the Great Swede, and of the Most Famous Campaign of Turenne, Condé, Eugene and Marlborough, Volume 2 Gustavus Adolphus fell at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632 (though his army still won). He really won one victory, at Breitenfeld, lost at Alte Veste and got killed at Luetzen. Adolphus’s campaigns in Sweden, Poland, and Germany are covered and the idea, I think, was to explain grand strategy. Gustavus Adolphus’ effective use of supply magazines, linear tactics and use of lighter artillery and firearms were steadily adopted by all the European powers. Under his reign, Sweden emerged as a great power in Europe. However, Gustavus was also responsible for many domestic reforms which pushed Sweden from being just another Baltic state to being the most dominant power in the region. His country was poor and sparsely populated, but already the ambitious young “Lion of Midnight” (that is, of the North) intended to enrich it with new lands and looted wealth. The most important historiographical debate pertaining to Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years’ War is, in fact, one that is not even discussed until 1955—the “military revolution” debate. Gustavus Adolphus saw himself as the protector of Protestantism in Germany and if north Germany was safe then so was Sweden. “Lion of the North” Gustavus Adolphus and the Thirty Years’ War: Fighting the Holy Roman Empire – Part I On 9 December 1594, Gustav II Adolf was born. The last European ruler to die in battle seems to have been Charles XII of Sweden in 1718. When Gustavus Adolphus was killed, Sweden became just another faction in a complex network of interested parties, but throughout the remainder of the war, it was an important faction. In 1630, the Protestant forces were on their heels when Gustavus Adolphus, the Protestant king of Sweden, intervened, pushing the Catholic Imperial army out of much of Germany. One of the greatest military leaders of all time, Gustavus seemed poised to turn the tide of the conflict in favor of the northern European Protestants. The 1.5 million Swedes were surrounded by enemies with 14 times their population. Gustavus Adolphus was the king of Sweden from 1611 to 1632 and is remembered as one of the greatest rulers in European history. Sources The Thirty Years War by C. V. Wedgwood Gustavus Adolphus and the Struggle of Protestantism for Existence by C. R. L. Fletcher His achievements must surely have inspired Peter the Great to do the same for Russia. The final stage of the Thirty Years War began. Clearly Wilson does not like his war and the politics of the war to be too dramatic and in this he clearly differs from his publishers who have printed on the cover of the book a quotation from one of Gustavus Adolphus’s letters: ‘This is a fight between God and the Devil. The Thirty Years War consisted of multiple phases, lasting from 1618 to 1648. F. Solano Lopez, the megalomaniac dictator of Paraguay in 1870, was killed in battle. Cardinal Richelieu was also France entered openly into the war in 1635. The military genius of Gustavus Adolphus. -- Secret Triumph of Wallenstein. -- The Saxon Army invades Bohemia, and takes Prague. Discuss why the Swedish were inclined to join in the war; KEY POINTS. And his country was at war … Swedish Infantry Gustavus Adolphus, a key reformer of armed forces in the 17th century, was crowned king of Sweden at age 17. 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